common medications for type 2 diabetes
We observed no difference in kidney outcomes over 5 years across the four different study medications added to metformin.
The GRADE study was recognized as one of the 2023 Top 10 Clinical Research Achievements by the Clinical Research Forum.
All study medications (insulin glargine, liraglutide, sitagliptin, and glimepiride) when added to metformin lowered HbA1c. After 4 years of follow-up, participants taking liraglutide or insulin glargine added to metformin reached and maintained target blood glucose levels for the longest time.
On average, participants in all treatment groups lost weight. Over 4 years, participants in the liraglutide and sitagliptin groups lost more weight than those assigned to the glargine and glimepiride groups. Overall, severe hypoglycemia was rare. Participants taking liraglutide reported more frequent gastrointestinal side effects and weight loss compared to the other 3 groups.
No differences were seen in participants reaching the primary outcome of HbA1c level of 7.0% or higher, by sex, age, or race or ethnic group for subgroups prespecifed by the study.